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Research Article
Mohammad Aktar Sayeed1, Fuad Mohammed Farhad1*, Syed Mohammed Tareq2, Md. Ikram1, Md. Nurul Islam1, Saiful Alam Siddique1 and Dipesh Das3


Aim: The main focus of the project was to identify whether there is any interaction between Ketotifen Fumarate (antihistamine) and domperidone (Antiemetic/dopaminergic antagonist) present or not at simulated gastric and intestinal solutions of different pH.
Method: Using Job's continuous-variation analysis the possible drug-drug interaction was determined at a fixed temperature (37°C) at the studied pH. From Job's continuous-variation analysis the views of drug-drug interaction at different concentration ratio at all pH (0.4, 1.2, 2.0, 2.8, 6.8, 7.4) except 6.0 were noted.
Result: Data obtained from spectroscopic analysis showed decrease in free-drug concentration of both of the drugs analyzed when they were within the same gastric simulated solution.
Conclusion: Concurrent administration of ketotifen Fumarate and domperidone would result in the formation of a stable complex and this is likely to reduce the therapeutic activities of both drugs.

Research Article
Hui Li1, Xu Chen1, Wenna Shi1, Ping Liu1, Dongmei Xu2 and Shujuan Sun3


Background: Candida albicans is the most common pathogen in immunocompromised patients suffering from invasive fungal infections. Fluconazole (FLC) is widely applied to prevent and treat these infections. However, the prolonged use of it has caused an increase of clinically resistant isolates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro interactions between FLC and two antibiotics, ofloxacin (OFLX) and azithromycin (AZM), against four clinically isolated Candida albicans (two are resistant strains; the others are susceptive) by checkerboard assay and time-kill assay and to investigate whether the two antibiotics could enhance FLC penetrating C. albicans biofilms.
Results: By the checkerboard assay, only the combination of FLC and OFLX showed synergistic effects against the resistant strains. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) against one highly resistant strain was 0.035 and the percentages of growth difference (ΔE) was 1256%. By the time-kill assay, a synergistic interpretation of the combination of FLC and OFLX was also gained, with a decrease in CFU/ml of 2.0151og10 at 48h of incubation, compared with FLC used alone. Confirmed by antifungal penetration study, the probable mechanism of drug action was the enhancement of OFLX on FLC penetrating biofilms.
Conclusions: Our study revealed that FLC/OFLX combination showed synergistic effect against FLC-resistant C. albicans, and one of the probable mechanisms was that OFLX could enhance FLC penetrating through the biofilms.

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iProbe Pharmaceutical Science & Development is an Open Access journal encircling all aspects of pharmaceutical research. Pharmaceutical Science & Development, an official journal of the Pharmaceutical Scientists, presents papers which portray novel research spanning the entire spectrum of drug discovery, development, evaluation, and regulatory approval. The journal welcomes submissions from all fields of pharmaceutical Sciences including clinical trials. It is journal policy to publish work deemed by peer reviewers to be a coherent and sound addition to scientific knowledge and to put less emphasis on interest levels, provided that the research constitutes a useful contribution to the field.
IPSD is planned primarily to promote prompt publication with the different types of articles like mini-reviews, Short communication, original research articles and review articles in all fields of pharmaceutical sciences. IPSD will mainly publish research papers on original work, either experimental or theoretical that advance our understanding of pharmaceutical sciences. The Journal is promptly available, and is freely accessible globally through internet to share the innovations of the researchers for scholarly advancement in this field.
Emphasis of the journal includes the following areas:
Pharmaceutics, Novel & Targeted Drug Delivery, Nanotechnology, Pharmaceutical chemistry, Pharmacognosy & Ethanobotany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Pharmaceutical Biotechnology & Microbiology, Pharmacy practic, Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacovigilance, Natural Product Research, Drug Regulatory Affairs, Medicinal chemistry, drug delivery, Pharmaceutical analysis, Microbiology, Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Biopharmaceutics and drug disposition, and drugs from natural sources, Polymer Science, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmacokinetics, Computational Chemistry and Molecular Drug Design, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics and Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Environmental, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology of Pharmaceutical Interest.
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